Project is a perfect blend of human and non-human resources pulled together in an organisation to achieve a specified purpose. A project has a single set of objectives and when these objectives are achieved, the project is termed to fined life span. Project management is an important managebe completed. Therefore, a project has a finite and well-derial activity for any organisation. Wherever there is a need for a specified time-bound work, project management is called for
– whether it is an educational institution, a hospital, a publishing house, a business house, a financial institution, an agricultural and rural development work, a social work or an industrial construction project. Project management envisages meticulous planning, effective implementation and professional organisation to achieve the management of cost, time and performance. Therefore, the traditional form of organisation with functional divisions, hierarchical relationships and continuous flow of repetitive work is not suitable for project management. Project management calls for sharper tools of planning and control and improved ways of coping with human problems as a project has certain distinctive characteristic features of a non-routine and non-repetitive undertaking plagued with uncertainties; a co-ordinated effort of persons drawn from different divisions, disciplines and also from external agencies, and a dynamic, temporary and flexible relationships.
These characteristic features make management of a project different from management of operations and involves issues like form of project organisation, project planning, project implementation, project control and human aspects of project management. Therefore, in the understanding of project management, following aspects are important:
●The objectives, scope and type of management.
●The project phase concept.
●The feasibility study involving preparation of de-
tailed project report and project selection.
●Financial evaluation, cost and time overruns.
●Implementation phase in project management.
●Other aspects like contracts and specifications, foreign exchange and import controls, power shortage,
●labour and tax incentives etc.
Project management is the application of a collection of tools and techniques to direct the use of diverse resources towards the accomplishment of a unique, complex, one-time task within time, cost and quality constraints. Each task requires a particular mix of these tools and techniques structured to fit a project environment and life-cycle of the project.Thus, project management means dedicating organisational resources to the end objective and keeping the totality in focus all the time. The emphasis in project management is on results with the holistic approach. A good project management seeks to remove, among other things, delays in execution, avoid cause of delays and identification of technical flaws in executing projects.
In a project management, all work has inter-dependence and inter-relationship with others. This approach of project management differs from functional management approach in that the latter does not hold responsible to any one individual for a work from start to end or from A to Z This create problems of communication, co-ordination, commitment and control. No good decision could be taken without considering all inter-related things and no useful result can be achieved without completing the whole work. The importance of any work depends on how it stands in relation to others and to the whole. The inter-relationships and even the work to be performed is liable to be changed, but the objective does not change. In project management environment, the future is uncertain unlike in an ordinary functional management. In project management, it is necessary to keep an eye on the future and adopt to very fast changed needs of the future. Quick responses and flexibility are essential for dealing with ever-changing dynamic situations which pervade the project management. Thus, the aims and objectives of project management are :
●Timely completion of the project.
●Avoidance of delay, technical flaws and drawings defects.
●Proper flow of funds.
●Proper tooling and techniques.
●Proper control over chain reaction activities.
Peculiarities of the nature and category of projects call for a special approach to ensure success of a project.
The main components required for a successful project management are as follows:
(a) A clearly defined project objective.
(b) An integrated total project plan with detailed project report, brokendown into tasks and activities with daily targets.
(c) Anintegrated project team, including the representatives of theowner and/or executing authority, consultant, main contrac-tor, suppliers of critical equipments, funding institutions,central and state government etc.
(d) The necessary resources.
(e) All effective quick-hitting control system.